Learn Stress Management To Avoid Making Mistakes

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Learn Stress Management To Avoid Making Mistakes Wrong decisions and impromptu choices are always the result of stress. If your mind has gone berserk with a problem, then you can be sure that you will be making mistakes left and right without even knowing it. You can compromise your career, destroy a business, or even […]

General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad

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General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Araminta Ross, later named Harriet Tubman, was born into slavery circa 1820. She was raised under harsh slave conditions in Dorchester County, Maryland; she was subjected to whippings even as a small child. When Harriet was twelve years old, a white overseer struck her in the head with a […]

France and the American Revolution

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France and the American Revolution

In March of 2003, after France opposed a UN invasion of Iraq, two US Republicans
removed all references to French fries from menus affiliated with the US House of
Representatives. In the House cafeteria, potatoes became “freedom fries”. In a time of
such Francophobia, some Americans might be surprised by the history of positive
French-American relations. In fact, it’s likely that the American colonies would not have defeated the British without French support.

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In the 1770s, French enthusiasm for the American Revolution was high. Intellectually,
French Enlightenment intellectuals were agitating against their own feudal land systems and class privilege. Emotionally, French leaders had been eager to defeat arch-rival Britain since their Seven Years War. King Louis XVI had been privately supporting the colonists for some time. But now, formal support appeared more advantageous. France saw this as a strategic opportunity to secure North American landholdings and officially befriend a rising power. Ben Franklin also played a significant role in winning tangible French support; traveling with his wit and charm, Franklin visited Paris in 1776 to rally support for the colonists’ cause. France first assisted the rogue colonies in May of 1776 by sending 14 ships loaded with gunpowder and other war supplies.

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In February of 1778, the colonists and the French signed a Treaty of Amity and
Commerce. This was significant because France not only offered trade concessions, but also legally recognized the colonies as the United States. Most importantly, Ben Franklin also secured a Treaty of Alliance with King Louis XVI. This stipulated that if France entered the war against Britain:

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1) neither France nor the US would surrender; 2) neither would agree to peace with Britain without the other’s consent; and 3) each guaranteed the
other’s landholdings in America. Within a few months, British ships fired upon the
French, and the two countries were at war. France sent about 12,000 soldiers and 30,000 sailors to support the colonists.

Many Frenchmen were truly committed to the cause of liberty. A former French Navy
captain, Marquis de Lafayette, had such zeal that the French suggested he enlist in the US forces! He volunteered to become a major general for no pay. Lafayette became an
effective military leader and a lifelong friend of General George Washington. He was
eventually given honorary US citizenship.

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When France officially entered the war, Spanish interest was piqued. Motivated by the
possibility of a land grab, Spain entered the war as a French ally against Britain. Holland followed suit. This combination of European powers was a much greater threat to Britain than the colonies could produce alone, and the crucial 1781 victory at Yorktown could not have been won without the French alliance.

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Unfortunately for France, following the Battle at Yorktown, Ben Franklin engaged in
secret negotiations with Britain. This was particularly insulting considering the French- American treaties and France’s considerable wartime expenditures. Their hopes of becoming the main US trade partner were dashed when most American trade was contracted within the British Empire. Also, expectations of regaining French North American territories were mostly unmet.

Still, defeating the British brought France a definite taste of revenge. It also restored a
sense of French confidence and esteem alongside other European powers. Furthermore, in spirit France was now ready for a revolution of its own.

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Deep Throat and his Legacy

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Deep Throat and his Legacy In the pre-dawn hours of June 17, 1972, a security guard called police officers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. He had discovered a taped-open door. Once inside,the officers found and arrested five males in a highly unusual burglary. The burglary was unusual not only because it was inside […]

Economic Causes of the American Revolution

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Economic Causes of the American Revolution

What brought about the American Revolution? Like most military conflicts, the
Revolution was spurred by a web of complex social, political, and economic factors.
However, economic concerns were arguably paramount when colonists finally decided to
wage war against the British monarchy. Indeed, the era’s most famous rallying cry
remains “No taxation without representation!”

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Following the French and Indian War (or Seven Years War), the previously prosperous
British government found that its debt had nearly doubled. Parliamentarians soon
proposed that the prosperous American colonists shoulder more of the monarchy’s
expenses. Several new laws were then passed to benefit the Crown and squeeze the
colonists’ pocketbooks.

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The trend began with the Currency Act of 1764. This forbade the colonists’ printing of
paper currency. Colonists were not mining precious metals for coins, and they were now
even more dependent upon Britain for capital. The Currency Act significantly reduced
the colonists’ options for economic self-determination, and this was particularly resented
in light of their existing trade deficit with Great Britain.

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Next, the Sugar Act of 1764 aimed to enforce laws related to molasses importation. Prior
to the French and Indian War, the wealthy British Empire could afford to be lax with its
colonial customs laws. American merchants became accustomed to circumventing trade
tariffs. In effect, they had enjoyed a relatively independent economic system. But when
the King became concerned about his coffers, enforcement of existing tax laws became a
top priority. As taxes on molasses climbed higher, the colonial rum industry atrophied.
The loss of the valuable rum trade meant that associated trade for raw materials, like
lumber from the Caribbean, dwindled. The Sugar Act also added tariffs to non-sugary
goods like coffee and calico fabric. Taxation without representation began to permeate
more and more aspects of the colonial economy.

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Finally, the Stamp Act of 1765 assessed fees for stamps. These stamps were to appear not
only on mail, but on every colonial newspaper, legal document, playing card, mortgage,
and other printed materials. This final wide-sweeping act was designed to raise revenue
for the salaries of British troops and government elites. In many colonists’ opinions, the
Stamp Act most clearly and illegally disconnected taxation from representation.

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To oppose the Stamp Act, most colonies sent representatives to a special session in New
York City. The delegates shed their traditionally humble acquiescence to British rule and
asserted that “no taxes… can be constitutionally imposed… but by their respective
legislatures.” American public opinion supported these delegates’ refusal to accept the
Stamp Act. Popular new leaders like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry emerged to
endorse mob resistance, and by 1765 many American merchants had subscribed to a
Non-Importation Agreement.

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However, the British continued to resist colonial demands for increased self-rule. The
colonists’ verbal protest ultimately became militant. In Massachusetts, for example,
farmers’ political groups rose in rebellion. Armed and angry, farmers’ militias filled
Worcester County’s village green, prevented the opening of traditional British courts and
forcing the resignation of royally-appointed judges. The Worcester County Committees
of Correspondence proposed a convention “of the people” that would design new
institutions of local governance. Locally-grown militias in Virginia and Pennsylvania
followed suit.

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Some American colonists attempted a compromise in 1774. Joseph Galloway, a self-
proclaimed “man of loyal principles”, presented a plan to the First Continental Congress.
Galloway’s peace plan combined a royally-appointed colonial governorship with the
transfer of legislative and taxation powers to the colonists. However, Galloway’s plan
was no match for many colonists’ suspicions of the British. The compromise was rejected
by a single vote.

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At last, in the spring of 1775, the British government ordered the royal governor Thomas
Gage to suppress public assembly in Concord, Massachusetts. When Gage attempted to
seize supplies of the local militia, the Patriot “minutemen” – ready to fight at a minute’s
notice – inflicted heavy casualties upon his British troops. The colonists, now self-
identified as sons and daughters of America, saw little possibility of reconciliation with
Great Britain. The American Revolution had begun.

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Acupuncture and Arthritis

Acupuncture and Arthritis

Acupuncture is a therapy that has long been held in high esteem because of the beliefs that the Chinese had about its capabilities. However, if you are currently living with arthritis then there is something that you should know about the acupuncture therapy. For starters, there have been arthritis patients who have experienced a great relief from the arthritis pain that they have felt. Whether or not acupuncture works for everyone dealing with this kind of chronic pain is unknown, but what is known is that the therapy does work and there should be lots more research being poured into this age-old technique.

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Theories about Why Acupuncture Cures Arthritis

Many chronic arthritis have said that they feel instantly better after a round of the acupuncture therapy. This is not only an astounding finding, but many people and researchers don’t exactly know why it works. However, the only existing and current theory comes from the Chinese because they believed that the therapy of acupuncture could cure pretty much any pain in the body. For starters, the Chinese believe that there are various acupoints located along points in the body that trigger the pain that is felt, especially during a bout of chronic arthritis. If acupuncture needles are then pointed towards those acupoints in the body, it is believed that the pain will cease and the individual can go on living a healthy life.

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This theory certainly is held true over the very many lives that have tried it. More than ten million Americans currently suffer from some form of arthritis, and many of those patients feel as if they have nothing to lose when trying acupuncture. Indeed, they do not have anything to lose, because the Chinese believed that this form of therapy, even if it wouldn’t work for some people, certainly would not be of harm to anyone.

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Where to Receive Arthritis Acupuncture

If one is looking to find a cure for their arthritis and they are looking for an acupuncture cure specifically, there are many places one can go in order to try this age-old therapy. For starters, universities and colleges along with research centers are usually more than happy to take on arthritis patients in their effort to find out more about why acupuncture does work. Along with these kinds of establishments, though, there are also set acupuncture therapists that work alongside patients in their private offices, and these are the offices where the more individualized acupuncture care can take place. If one is not able to find an acupuncture therapist in his or her own city or town then chances are that they will have to drive a short distance to find someone who is interested in the therapy.

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Nevertheless, though, there are thousands of places across the United States that are interested in pursuing the art of acupuncture in order to cure arthritis. What arthritis patients do know and what acupuncture therapists have known for quite some time is that the therapy does work well and it only take a little bit of believe and confidence in order to know that one will actually get better from the terrible and plaguing arthritis.

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