General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad

Esta galería contiene 5 fotos

General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Araminta Ross, later named Harriet Tubman, was born into slavery circa 1820. She was raised under harsh slave conditions in Dorchester County, Maryland; she was subjected to whippings even as a small child. When Harriet was twelve years old, a white overseer struck her in the head with a […]

France and the American Revolution

france-in-the-amerev

France and the American Revolution

In March of 2003, after France opposed a UN invasion of Iraq, two US Republicans
removed all references to French fries from menus affiliated with the US House of
Representatives. In the House cafeteria, potatoes became “freedom fries”. In a time of
such Francophobia, some Americans might be surprised by the history of positive
French-American relations. In fact, it’s likely that the American colonies would not have defeated the British without French support.

the-glorious-first-of-june-by-philippe-jacques-de-loutherbourg-c-1795

In the 1770s, French enthusiasm for the American Revolution was high. Intellectually,
French Enlightenment intellectuals were agitating against their own feudal land systems and class privilege. Emotionally, French leaders had been eager to defeat arch-rival Britain since their Seven Years War. King Louis XVI had been privately supporting the colonists for some time. But now, formal support appeared more advantageous. France saw this as a strategic opportunity to secure North American landholdings and officially befriend a rising power. Ben Franklin also played a significant role in winning tangible French support; traveling with his wit and charm, Franklin visited Paris in 1776 to rally support for the colonists’ cause. France first assisted the rogue colonies in May of 1776 by sending 14 ships loaded with gunpowder and other war supplies.

the-role-of-france-in-the-american-revolution_1

In February of 1778, the colonists and the French signed a Treaty of Amity and
Commerce. This was significant because France not only offered trade concessions, but also legally recognized the colonies as the United States. Most importantly, Ben Franklin also secured a Treaty of Alliance with King Louis XVI. This stipulated that if France entered the war against Britain:

france-joins-us-against-britain

 

1) neither France nor the US would surrender; 2) neither would agree to peace with Britain without the other’s consent; and 3) each guaranteed the
other’s landholdings in America. Within a few months, British ships fired upon the
French, and the two countries were at war. France sent about 12,000 soldiers and 30,000 sailors to support the colonists.

Many Frenchmen were truly committed to the cause of liberty. A former French Navy
captain, Marquis de Lafayette, had such zeal that the French suggested he enlist in the US forces! He volunteered to become a major general for no pay. Lafayette became an
effective military leader and a lifelong friend of General George Washington. He was
eventually given honorary US citizenship.

french-aid-amervc

When France officially entered the war, Spanish interest was piqued. Motivated by the
possibility of a land grab, Spain entered the war as a French ally against Britain. Holland followed suit. This combination of European powers was a much greater threat to Britain than the colonies could produce alone, and the crucial 1781 victory at Yorktown could not have been won without the French alliance.

french-american-aid

Unfortunately for France, following the Battle at Yorktown, Ben Franklin engaged in
secret negotiations with Britain. This was particularly insulting considering the French- American treaties and France’s considerable wartime expenditures. Their hopes of becoming the main US trade partner were dashed when most American trade was contracted within the British Empire. Also, expectations of regaining French North American territories were mostly unmet.

Still, defeating the British brought France a definite taste of revenge. It also restored a
sense of French confidence and esteem alongside other European powers. Furthermore, in spirit France was now ready for a revolution of its own.

http://www.nerdomeblog.com

 

Deep Throat and his Legacy

Esta galería contiene 6 fotos

Deep Throat and his Legacy In the pre-dawn hours of June 17, 1972, a security guard called police officers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. He had discovered a taped-open door. Once inside,the officers found and arrested five males in a highly unusual burglary. The burglary was unusual not only because it was inside […]

Economic Causes of the American Revolution

american-revolution-one

Economic Causes of the American Revolution

What brought about the American Revolution? Like most military conflicts, the
Revolution was spurred by a web of complex social, political, and economic factors.
However, economic concerns were arguably paramount when colonists finally decided to
wage war against the British monarchy. Indeed, the era’s most famous rallying cry
remains “No taxation without representation!”

amrev_causes-1

Following the French and Indian War (or Seven Years War), the previously prosperous
British government found that its debt had nearly doubled. Parliamentarians soon
proposed that the prosperous American colonists shoulder more of the monarchy’s
expenses. Several new laws were then passed to benefit the Crown and squeeze the
colonists’ pocketbooks.

rivalry_small

The trend began with the Currency Act of 1764. This forbade the colonists’ printing of
paper currency. Colonists were not mining precious metals for coins, and they were now
even more dependent upon Britain for capital. The Currency Act significantly reduced
the colonists’ options for economic self-determination, and this was particularly resented
in light of their existing trade deficit with Great Britain.

amrvslide_6

Next, the Sugar Act of 1764 aimed to enforce laws related to molasses importation. Prior
to the French and Indian War, the wealthy British Empire could afford to be lax with its
colonial customs laws. American merchants became accustomed to circumventing trade
tariffs. In effect, they had enjoyed a relatively independent economic system. But when
the King became concerned about his coffers, enforcement of existing tax laws became a
top priority. As taxes on molasses climbed higher, the colonial rum industry atrophied.
The loss of the valuable rum trade meant that associated trade for raw materials, like
lumber from the Caribbean, dwindled. The Sugar Act also added tariffs to non-sugary
goods like coffee and calico fabric. Taxation without representation began to permeate
more and more aspects of the colonial economy.

amervi_orig

Finally, the Stamp Act of 1765 assessed fees for stamps. These stamps were to appear not
only on mail, but on every colonial newspaper, legal document, playing card, mortgage,
and other printed materials. This final wide-sweeping act was designed to raise revenue
for the salaries of British troops and government elites. In many colonists’ opinions, the
Stamp Act most clearly and illegally disconnected taxation from representation.

american_revolution_cow_commerce_cartoon

To oppose the Stamp Act, most colonies sent representatives to a special session in New
York City. The delegates shed their traditionally humble acquiescence to British rule and
asserted that “no taxes… can be constitutionally imposed… but by their respective
legislatures.” American public opinion supported these delegates’ refusal to accept the
Stamp Act. Popular new leaders like Samuel Adams and Patrick Henry emerged to
endorse mob resistance, and by 1765 many American merchants had subscribed to a
Non-Importation Agreement.

Repeal of the Stamp Act .jpg

However, the British continued to resist colonial demands for increased self-rule. The
colonists’ verbal protest ultimately became militant. In Massachusetts, for example,
farmers’ political groups rose in rebellion. Armed and angry, farmers’ militias filled
Worcester County’s village green, prevented the opening of traditional British courts and
forcing the resignation of royally-appointed judges. The Worcester County Committees
of Correspondence proposed a convention “of the people” that would design new
institutions of local governance. Locally-grown militias in Virginia and Pennsylvania
followed suit.

amrev1

Some American colonists attempted a compromise in 1774. Joseph Galloway, a self-
proclaimed “man of loyal principles”, presented a plan to the First Continental Congress.
Galloway’s peace plan combined a royally-appointed colonial governorship with the
transfer of legislative and taxation powers to the colonists. However, Galloway’s plan
was no match for many colonists’ suspicions of the British. The compromise was rejected
by a single vote.

revolutionary-war

 

At last, in the spring of 1775, the British government ordered the royal governor Thomas
Gage to suppress public assembly in Concord, Massachusetts. When Gage attempted to
seize supplies of the local militia, the Patriot “minutemen” – ready to fight at a minute’s
notice – inflicted heavy casualties upon his British troops. The colonists, now self-
identified as sons and daughters of America, saw little possibility of reconciliation with
Great Britain. The American Revolution had begun.

http://www.nerdomeblog.com

 

Motorcycle Subcultures

Esta galería contiene 7 fotos

Motorcycle Subcultures One of the roots of the motorcycle’s popularity is its ability to cater to a wide variety of consumers. Proof of this is the different subcultures among motorcycle fans and owners. Below are some of them. 1. One percenters – are several motorcycling groups that are famous for their law-breaking activities. Their name […]

The History of Motorcycles

Esta galería contiene 12 fotos

The History of Motorcycles Motorcycles have come a long way from the early designs in the 1800s to the different types available in the market today. This article takes a look at the history of these machines to see how much they have changed throughout the years. The early motorcycles were essentially motorized versions of […]