Valentine´s Day History.

Valentine’s day is coming , happy couples promising love forever , friendship everywhere , nice details , lovely sharing moments . But do you know how is this celebration started? Let’s review the history behind Valentine’s Day. Photo by rawpixel on Unsplash Valentine’s Day, is a festival of Christian origin that is celebrated annually on February 14 as […]

Twelve Things You Never Knew About Christmas.

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1. Christmas trees were first lighted with actual candles, which presented a fire hazard. As a result containers filled with water had to be kept near the Christmas tree. Photo by Arun Kuchibhotla on Unsplash 2. Workers in the construction industry are responsible for the tradition of having a Christmas tree on display at Rockefeller Center in New […]

Stan Lee, Marvel Comics visionary, dead at 95.

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(CNN)Stan Lee, the colorful Marvel Comics patriarch who helped usher in a new era of superhero storytelling — and saw his creations become a giant influence in the movie business — has died. He was 95. Kirk Schneck, an attorney for Lee’s daughter, tells CNN the comic giant was taken by ambulance from his Los […]

7 leadership lessons from Shakespeare.

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Shakespeare, arguably the most celebrated writer who ever lived, died on 23 April in 1616. World Book Day is held on this date to recognize the passing of the Bard, as well as the death of Miguel de Cervantes and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, two titans of Spanish-language literature, on exactly the same date. […]

General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad

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General Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad Araminta Ross, later named Harriet Tubman, was born into slavery circa 1820. She was raised under harsh slave conditions in Dorchester County, Maryland; she was subjected to whippings even as a small child. When Harriet was twelve years old, a white overseer struck her in the head with a […]

France and the American Revolution

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France and the American Revolution

In March of 2003, after France opposed a UN invasion of Iraq, two US Republicans
removed all references to French fries from menus affiliated with the US House of
Representatives. In the House cafeteria, potatoes became “freedom fries”. In a time of
such Francophobia, some Americans might be surprised by the history of positive
French-American relations. In fact, it’s likely that the American colonies would not have defeated the British without French support.

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In the 1770s, French enthusiasm for the American Revolution was high. Intellectually,
French Enlightenment intellectuals were agitating against their own feudal land systems and class privilege. Emotionally, French leaders had been eager to defeat arch-rival Britain since their Seven Years War. King Louis XVI had been privately supporting the colonists for some time. But now, formal support appeared more advantageous. France saw this as a strategic opportunity to secure North American landholdings and officially befriend a rising power. Ben Franklin also played a significant role in winning tangible French support; traveling with his wit and charm, Franklin visited Paris in 1776 to rally support for the colonists’ cause. France first assisted the rogue colonies in May of 1776 by sending 14 ships loaded with gunpowder and other war supplies.

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In February of 1778, the colonists and the French signed a Treaty of Amity and
Commerce. This was significant because France not only offered trade concessions, but also legally recognized the colonies as the United States. Most importantly, Ben Franklin also secured a Treaty of Alliance with King Louis XVI. This stipulated that if France entered the war against Britain:

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1) neither France nor the US would surrender; 2) neither would agree to peace with Britain without the other’s consent; and 3) each guaranteed the
other’s landholdings in America. Within a few months, British ships fired upon the
French, and the two countries were at war. France sent about 12,000 soldiers and 30,000 sailors to support the colonists.

Many Frenchmen were truly committed to the cause of liberty. A former French Navy
captain, Marquis de Lafayette, had such zeal that the French suggested he enlist in the US forces! He volunteered to become a major general for no pay. Lafayette became an
effective military leader and a lifelong friend of General George Washington. He was
eventually given honorary US citizenship.

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When France officially entered the war, Spanish interest was piqued. Motivated by the
possibility of a land grab, Spain entered the war as a French ally against Britain. Holland followed suit. This combination of European powers was a much greater threat to Britain than the colonies could produce alone, and the crucial 1781 victory at Yorktown could not have been won without the French alliance.

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Unfortunately for France, following the Battle at Yorktown, Ben Franklin engaged in
secret negotiations with Britain. This was particularly insulting considering the French- American treaties and France’s considerable wartime expenditures. Their hopes of becoming the main US trade partner were dashed when most American trade was contracted within the British Empire. Also, expectations of regaining French North American territories were mostly unmet.

Still, defeating the British brought France a definite taste of revenge. It also restored a
sense of French confidence and esteem alongside other European powers. Furthermore, in spirit France was now ready for a revolution of its own.

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Deep Throat and his Legacy

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Deep Throat and his Legacy In the pre-dawn hours of June 17, 1972, a security guard called police officers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. He had discovered a taped-open door. Once inside,the officers found and arrested five males in a highly unusual burglary. The burglary was unusual not only because it was inside […]